• I am reworking and moving some of the data posted here: supplements and some data atm only made available at this discord http://bit.do/S1914 to this place. Some of this data can contradict the manual. Most data posted has been retested accurately recently; some values might still depend on display values though and might need minor correction.

    Under Construction


    To generate plots like these resort to the discord channel bit.do/S1914 and use the command !indicator to generate the manual.

    Tick: a tick is a one way action between one army dealing damage to the hitpoints of another army.

    Combat-round: a series of ticks initiated by one army, the attacker.

    Offensive damage: damage that is dealt by the attacking army. Cavalry deals double damage in this capacity. A unit is attacker if it actively attacked another unit or moved while having enemy units in its close combat range (5 km). In legacy the attacker is displayed by a red lightning bolt above the unit display.

    Defensive damage: damage that is dealt by the defending army. Armoured cars deal double damage in this capacity. A unit is dealing defensive damage if it remains completely passive while being attacked. If everything works and responds like it should, the defending army ticks before the attacking army does, but the damage that can be dealt is calculated before it is applied by any side if it concerns a ground-battle, meaning that the defender cannot reduce the damage that can be dealt by the attacker by striking the first. However, in air-to-air battles and air-to-ground battles the defender will apply damage to the attacking planes.

    There are 3 main types of combat (close combat, ranged combat and aerial combat):

    1. Close combat is combat between units that make direct contact or are within 5km range of units to whom a 5km close combat range applies to. Close combat is not resolved until one of the armies is completely destroyed (unless both sides grant each other right of way). The defender and attacker both deal a tick every hour (speed 1x). A defending army can initiate its own separate combat-round, where it will be attacker and deal offensive damage to the other army, that will deal defensive damage. This way there will be 4 ticks every hour. If two moving armies collide with each other there will be two combat rounds and there is no way to tell what the succession of the ticks will be in advance.
    2. Ranged combat is dealt by units that deal ranged damage. The damage is dealt unidirectionally and can be discontinued by the attacker at any time. There does not seem to be a difference between the damage that is done by a ranged unit that pinned in close combat or is bombarding from a distance.
    3. Aerial combat is a hybrid form of combat. The damage is done ranged, but there is a close combat interaction resulting in the planes taking damage by both ground-units and planes. Aerial combat against planes that fly or are located on an airfield is the sub-type where aerial-aerial damage applies to. Besides a direct aerial attack there is also combat by patrol and this operates differently: if you set out a patrol the patrol will react to enemy planes that have an event in de patrolling area: attacking a city/unit, landing there or setting out a patrol with overlapping area themselves. It is very important to be aware that in the latter case, the planes that arrive take damage one-directionally and will not return any to the enemy planes that are already patrolling there: damage is only taken by one group at the moment it clocks (patrol-clock is 1 hour on speed x1).

    Units can deal damage to either other units, buildings and provinces (lowering of province morale). Unit-damage is first applied to the units and after that structure-damage is applied to buildings. Unit and buildings do not absorb any damage for each other and are calculated separately without affecting each others input of damage. Both structure damage and unit damage are subject to randomness where good hits are corrected by subsequent bad hits and vice versa. The lowering of province-morale is not random (see structure-combat).


    n = number of units
    mc = morale/condition
    hp = hp display in game (continuous quantity, hp = mc * n * hp-type)
    hitpoints = discrete hitpoints that a unit is made of and that can be either be erased or not be erased (can differ from hp)
    hp-type = the number of hitpoints that make up one (100% mc) instance of a unit-type
    hp-type reduction: when hp-type is reduced to 1. This means that if you erase one hitpoint while this condition applies n is decreased by 1.

    There might be a connecting notion missing, but it seems that two different rules can apply to determine how many hitpoints a unit (of a certain unit-type) has:

    1) if the hp-type is 1 (eg armoured car or infantry) --> hitpoints = n

    2) if hp-type > 1 --> hitpoints = mc * hp-type * n (hp-type reduction occurs under this condition: (n - 1) * hp-type >= hitpoints)

    These simple rules also govern the game display in terms of number of units and condition/morale:

    1) if hp-type = 1, mc is no variable and mc stays static

    2) if hp-type > 1: mc = hitpoints/(hp-type * n)

    morale versus condition

    This means that there is no difference concerning morale and condition units in the game display. If there would be a 2 hp-type morale unit it would act like condition units of 2 hp-type do and a 1 hp-type condition unit operates in the same way as the morale units (that both have 1 hp-type). So what is the difference between morale and condition?

    1 ) Morale units are sensitive to terrain-type (own, ally, non-ally) at daychange, resulting possibly in changing morale (see armymorale) while condition-units restore universally, regardless of terrain.

    2 ) After normal damage is applied and processed morale units lose an additional amount of morale/hp in combat, making them more vulnerable as condition-units and explaining why morale is not fixed as condition is fixed for 1 hp-type units.

    3) To compensate this somewhat morale units receive a boost in morale if they completely destroy an enemy unit (or are attached to other units doing that like artillery).


    • Buildings in a province or provinces themselves do not absorb any damage to the benefit of units that damage is applied to

    • Damage done to buildings is taken in separately and distributed evenly among the buildings present. The damage can be done to either the city itself or a unit in the province. The distance to the city is inversely proportional to the amount of damage that can be applied to the buildings. Randomness is involved.

    • Damage done to the province itself is taken in separately as well and results in a lower province morale (see graph). No randomness is involved and the distance to the city is not relevant.

    • Some of these statement should be backed up by better tests or refinements, but the data is quite convincing and the statements it supports are sufficient.


    • Usually mobility is at 100% (from day 4 on) and everybody is affected in the same way by reduced mobility the first days. This however can have major consequences for team battles.
    • Mobility is affected by the availability of oil. If there is oil it will rise 20% each day. Starting at 50% at day 0 and 100% at day 4.
    • It is not clear how mobility is affected by a shortage of oil and it is not clear how it should be affected. It does not decline 10% each day anyway and also does not in combination with a shortage of other resources.
    • A shortage of grain has no effect on mobility and also has no direct effect on army morale. Like any resource shortage it can influence army morale indirectly by lowering province morale.


    • All units besides close combat landunits get raw damage applied simply proportionally up and to 50 units.

    • Close combat landunits are an exception to this. Though close landcombat might not be the most common form of combat it is very important to be aware of how raw damage is added to these units, especially to infantry that is arguably the most important unit in the game.
    • Splitting up these kind of units offers the most obvious way to increase combined damage.


    Concerning view ranges:

    • balloons have 4x more surface area and are for this reason valuable. They do move however slowly and are best attached to a group of artillery since they share the same speed; they will add some nice airdefence as well.
    • you can become aware of the slowest unittype of a questionmark-unit (nationality visible only) in the opaque area, by looking at the speed it is moving in sometimes.
    • planes cannot be attached to other units and "stick out separately", hinting at their presence this way.

    Concerning combat ranges:

    • close combat range (5km = 5 pixels) is very important: you can attack everything (also empty cities), except airborne units, in a range of 5 km, but the battleship and the light cruiser are exceptions to this.
    • splash/blast damage range is not clear: it concerns a smaller portion of damage being done to units in the vicinity (2-5 km max) of the target.
    • the ranged combat ranges can be misleading in utility: a railroadgun e.g. is by lack of vulnerable railroad often locally static, while artillery can move freely within its large range, actually covering a larger range that way, conditions provided, while the great speed of the light cruiser can overcome its poor range.
    • fort cover range of 2km only seems to be applied to locally stationary units within this range.


    • speed of a stack (formation composed of several different unit-types) is determined by the slowest link/unittype.
    • though seemingly trivial being aware of the different speeds of different units on different terrain is very important.


    YT video concerning Armymorale, condition and terrain: https://youtu.be/8ehewCPycMc

    Contrary to condition-units, morale units (cav and inf) are influenced by the terrain they are on at day-change. There are 2 ways in which terrain can influence army-morale:

    1) Own terrain: armies standing on own terrain will have their morale influenced by the difference of their army morale with the NEW province morale. It will move within the grey range given in the graph: 20% of the difference downwards and upwards.

    2a) If armies do not stand on own terrain their morale will not be influenced within a range, but it will change in a constant manner towards 50% (either downwards or upwards). If armies stand on ally terrain (blue line) their morale will slowly move towards 50%: armymoralenew = armymorale_old + (50 - armymorale_old)*0,10.

    2b) If armies stand on all other terrain (sea/enemy terrain/neutral terrain) they will move towards 50% morale in a quicker manner (green line) with 14.28%, 1/7th.

    facts concerning armymorale:

    • morale units that are part of an formation that destroys another formation will receive a boost in morale. It is not clear (to me) how, it might be based simply on the morale it has at the moment it destroys another formation.
    • morale of units on sea is preserved when being attached to a ship (or a railgun: addition user furry1).



    • See also the purple line in the previous graph. Condition units: everything but infantry and cavalry.
    • Condition_new = condition_old + (100- condition_old)/7
    • The restoration rate is independent of the number of units involved.
    • Condition-units repair universally at the same rate depending on damage taken, regardless of position , movement and being in combat.* Morale units in combat also react like morale units that are not in combat.


    • Barracks with low province morale will not only output infantry slowly, but will also produce low morale infantry: switch them off.
    • Spreading out barracks level 1 will offer more places to produce cavalry.
    • Two barracks 1 produce more inf than one barrack lvl 2.
    • Locate barracks on double resource provinces (see green line eg). 1000 grain a day will be expensive very quickly usually.
    • The Mesopotamia map red dot generation has been confirmed. Antarcticamap dots however do not offer this kind of max inf generation.
    • youtube link on infantry generation


    • production-times are determined by factory level segments of 12 hours that go from segment 0 (fab1) to 12 (fab4).
    • If you cancel a build (either production or building) the build will be reset to the last finished segment of 12 hours, but any remainder over a segment of 12 hours will not be refunded.
    • cavalry and armored cars can also be produced by garages.
    • cavalry also requires a barrack. the barrack level is irrelevant.
    • balloons do not require an airfield to be produced (and are apart from the high defense-value in all respects land-units)


    *province_order + current_morale = 102 (currently province order is displayed 21/1/21)

    * The sum of province influences (displayed province info) determine the new target morale. Morale moves to this new target morale with 25% at day-change (naturally maximally to 100%).

    *Province morale is very important for the output of resources, money and infantry (see output and infantry graphs). It can be best influenced by reducing these negative factors:
    - distance to capital: this penalty can be very significant. Reduce it by minimizing the sum of distances to the capital by relocating the capital. The distance penalty is based on the direct straight distance (not the distance by actual roads/paths) between a province city and the capital city: penalty = distance_to_capital/55.
    - number of wars: -5 for every war that is ongoing at day-change with a max of -25.
    - preventing enemy units from being in your province: -1 for every unit with a max penalty of -30.
    - shortages in resources-types have a negative influence that is build up and build down during the day depending on the duration of the shortages.

    * Other factors:
    - buildings: on large maps forts are for example constructed solely sometimes to compensate for the steep distance penalty. A fort level gives +5/2000 iron. Other Buildings that provide morale points: railroad/harbour (+7), factory-level (+2.5 rounded downwards).
    - conquering enemy capitals gives a direct raise of 10% in all provinces. Not having a capital gives a -40 morale factor. Losing a capital gives a direct drop of 20% in all provinces.
    - neighbour factor: each province of a nation directly bordering another will influence it by this formula (that will be summed for each neighbouring province): 2 - int(100-province_morale/10). (based and checked on data provided by Alexiel Lucien)
    - enemy neighbour factor: -5 for every bordering enemy province.


    A province has 2 types of output: money and resources.

    output = basis (single or double resource prov) * province_morale * corruption * building modifier (harbour, railroad, factory)

    Both types are proportionally affected by the corruption percentage; the percentage is floored in display with eg 2.99% being depicted as 2%.

    All provinces require 800 food (either fish, grain or both), 800 building material (either iron, wood or both) and 800 energy (coal, gas, oil) a day as upkeep. Not meeting these requirements results in a steep morale factor penalty, that can have a major effect on your economy, as output is proportional to province morale.

    money output:

    - single resource province: 708 + 19.5 * morale_percentage
    - double resource provinces: 1320 + 39 * morale_percentage
    - not to be increased by buildings

    resource (raw) output:

    - single resource province: 750 + 24 * morale_percentage

    - double resource province: 1500 + 48 * morale_percentage
    - railroad: + 33% bonus (500 coal/day upkeep)
    - harbour +25% - factory level: +8.25%
    - building modifiers stack, eg harbour + railroad = (33 + 25)% bonus
    - railroads, factories and harbours incease production proportional to the percentage of hitpoints they have.

    more info: output, money & upkeep


    There are 2000 points available and distributed over the players from the start and the objective is get a certain amount of them; e.g. 1000 of these points as a solo player. The score you have displays a contrast between your provinces, the morale of those provinces, the upgrades that have been built there and all the provinces you do not have, their morale and available upgrades. The most dominant of the factors mentioned are the provinces you have and the morale each one of them has in relation to all the other provinces on the map and their particular morale. It is therefore an economic score (that can be considered to quantify military potency).

    Some reservations have to made in asserting that the score does reflect economic power however: the DE score makes no distinction between single resource provinces and double resource provinces, while the latter are economically very potent since they give double the resource output for only a single province upkeep cost; making them more than twice as valuable as single resource provinces.There is a bonus to 99+ morale provinces, but this extra score, giving a considerable extra 27% weight to a 100% morale province, reflects no real economic power and are in that sense empty points that can distort the view on how the economic power is actually distributed in the map.

    If a player would receive negative points according to the formula these points will be set to zero points instead.

    Concerning the building upgrade factor:

    -Each instance of every type of building is considered an upgrade.

    -The particular level that building has (or damage is has taken) is irrelevant. A damaged garage lvl 1 that only has one hitpoint left counts in the same way as a fort level 5: both are considered 1 upgrade.

    -The capital is also considered a building-type. If you exclude the capital a province can only have 7 building-types maximally and thus add maximally 3.5 weight, while its province morale can add 16 (+6 bonus).


    • Corruption affects both money and resource output negatively with a penalty of maximally 15%.
    • Corruption is directly linked to population and for that reason to the number of provinces in all maps except 1910 historic (no homogeneous province population).
    • The rates at which corruption grows differs somewhat. More populous maps have lower ratings (and some share the same minimum rating).
    • Each nation starts with 0.1% corruption, this gets updated according to actual size/population after the gaining or losing of a province. At 12 provinces (56 million population) and below the rating is 0.1%.
    • The display for money lost due corruption is bugged, since it is effected by buildings that only increase the resource-output. It seems this money is not actually lost, but only incorrectly displayed.


    • forts only reduce damage applied to units inside of them
    • display map values are rounded values based on this formula: hp_fort/(hp_fort + 1) (correct formula supplied by user Forest_Dog)
    • forts are the only buildings that absorb damage that is being dealt to units. Other buildings and/or provinces as such do not absorb any damage that is applied to units.
    • The fort level is not reduced before damage is applied to the units inside the fort first.


    formation of ships use the following names:

    • 1 battleship present = battlegroup
    • no battleship + 1 light cruiser present= light cruiser flotilla
    • else: submarine-fleet


    link: youtube-population


    • Suppression of revolts is based on garrison-damage (not strength as the display suggests).
    • If an uprising does occur the garrison will attempt to suppress it and if this fails the remainder of the garrison will defect.
    • Planes cannot be part of the garrison and do not reduce the revolt-risk.


    Being a newspaper dze DE, surprisingly, provides a lot of information. Among this:

    • world's most powerful armies: this is based on the complete strength of your army (the damage unit-types of your army do (on their native terrain) without being confined by combat-mode or size-factors). This is an useful statistic, but can be deceptive since most strength will be made up of infantry units.
    • largest economies: sum of a nation's complete resource output (not money). Just like the previous statistic does not distinguish between type of unit, this one does not between type of resource.
    • richest countries: what capital is a jackpot and what nation is investing poorly? Resources should be valued at least 3:1 over money.
    • world’s most efficient economies. The value that is depicted is not very meaningful but the relation to the other ranked values is somewhat useful. Ranking seems to be determined by the complete resource output to population ratio (but this has not been checked carefully).


    resource shortages